Egerton, R. F. Control of radiation damage in the TEM. Ultramicroscopy, 2013, 127, 100-108
The problem of electron-beam damage in the transmission electron microscope is reviewed, with an emphasis on radiolysis processes in soft materials and organic specimens. Factors that determine the dose-limited resolution are identified for three different operational modes: bright-field scattering-contrast, phase-contrast and dark-field microscopy. Methods of reducing radiation damage are discussed, including low-dose techniques, cooling or encapsulating the specimen, and the choice of imaging mode, incident-beam diameter and incident-electron energy. Further experiments are suggested as a means of obtaining a better understanding and control of electron-beam damage.
Radiation damage, resolution limit, low dose imaging, cryoEM