Geng, Z.; She, Z.; Zhou, Q.; Dong, Z.; Zhan, F.; Zhang, H.; Xu, J.; Gao, Z. & Dong, Y. NUDIM: A non-uniform fast Fourier transform based dual-space constraint iterative reconstruction method in biological electron tomography. Journal of structural biology, 2021, 213, 107770
Electron tomography, a powerful imaging tool for studying 3D structures of macromolecular assemblies, always suffers from imperfect reconstruction with limited resolution due to the intrinsic low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and inaccessibility to certain tilt angles induced by radiation damage or mechanical limitation. In order to compensate for such insufficient data with low SNR and further improve imaging resolution, prior knowledge constraints about the objects in both real space and reciprocal space are thus exploited during tomographic reconstruction. However, direct Fast Fourier transform (FFT) between real space and reciprocal space remains extraordinarily challenging owing to their inconsistent grid sampling modes, e.g. regular and uniform grid sampling in real space whereas radial or polar grid sampling in reciprocal space. In order to solve such problem, a technique of non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NFFT) has been developed to transform efficiently between non-uniformly sampled grids in real and reciprocal space with sufficient accuracy. In this work, a Non-Uniform fast Fourier transform based Dual-space constraint Iterative reconstruction Method (NUDIM) applicable to biological electron tomography is proposed with a combination of basic concepts from equally sloped tomography (EST) and NFFT based reconstruction. In NUDIM, the use of NFFT can circumvent such grid sampling inconsistency and thus alleviate the stringent equally-sloped sampling requirement in EST reconstruction, while the dual-space constraint iterative procedure can dramatically enhance reconstruction quality. In comparison with conventional reconstruction methods, NUDIM is numerically and experimentally demonstrated to produce superior reconstruction quality with higher contrast, less noise and reduced missing wedge artifacts. More importantly, it is also capable of retrieving part of missing information from a limited number of projections.