Fernandez JJ, Sanjurjo JR, Carazo JM (1997) A spectral estimation approach to contrast transfer function detection in electron microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 68:267–295
In this work we approach the task of estimating the contrast transfer function (CTF) of a transmission electron microscope by applying mathematical tools extracted from the field of spectral estimation in multidimensional signal processing, such as periodogram averaging and autoregressive modelling. We prove that the clarity and precision by which the CTF can be detected using these approaches is far better than by any conventional method based on the Fourier transform amplitude alone. We also present a unified signal processing-based framework in which recent development in CTF detection approach can be studied, helping to understand their respective benefits and problems.
CTF estimation, PSD estimation, periodogram averaging, AR models