Sindelar CV, Grigorieff N. An adaptation of the Wiener filter suitable for analyzing images of isolated single particles. J Struct Biol. 2011 Oct;176(1):60-74.
The Wiener filter is a standard means of optimizing the signal in sums of aligned, noisy images obtained by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). However, estimation of the resolution-dependent ("spectral") signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR) from the input data has remained problematic, and error reduction due to specific application of the SSNR term within a Wiener filter has not been reported. Here we describe an adjustment to the Wiener filter for optimal summation of images of isolated particles surrounded by large regions of featureless background, as is typically the case in single-particle cryo-EM applications. We show that the density within the particle area can be optimized, in the least-squares sense, by scaling the SSNR term found in the conventional Wiener filter by a factor that reflects the fraction of the image field occupied by the particle. We also give related expressions that allow the SSNR to be computed for application in this new filter, by incorporating a masking step into a Fourier Ring Correlation (FRC), a standard resolution measure. Furthermore, we show that this masked FRC estimation scheme substantially improves on the accuracy of conventional SSNR estimation methods. We demonstrate the validity of our new approach in numeric tests with simulated data corresponding to realistic cryo-EM imaging conditions. This variation of the Wiener filter and accompanying derivation should prove useful for a variety of single-particle cryo-EM applications, including 3D reconstruction.
Wiener filter, SSNR, FSC